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We index full-text journals with open access platforms in our NEW Asia-Studies Full-Text Plus section. Here is the list of journals available.

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

June, 2015 Current Topics

 

Source

 

 

 

 

Testing the Link between Accessible Export Finance and Insurance, and Regional Trade Growth in Africa and Asia: A Role for Regional Export Credit and Investment Guarantee Agency (ECIGA), June 2015. Using panel data regressions, this paper analyzes the effect of imperfections in the formal export credit and insurance market on trade growth in the regions of Africa and Asia. The author identifies a significantly positive effect on trade from the reinforcing interaction of the export and insurance market and export diversity.

 

ADB

Realizing an ASEAN Economic Community: Progress and Remaining Challenges, May 2015. Fulfilling these commitments would promote predictability in ASEAN, as well as strengthen its credibility. But is ASEAN likely to meet this deadline? This paper finds that although ASEAN has come a long way towards realizing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), the remaining challenges suggest that the deadline will be missed...

 

ADB

Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education in Germany, June 2015. Germany’s bank-based financial system provides a high level of financial inclusion, measured by bank outreach and use of financial services. However, the most vulnerable individuals and small enterprises in Germany tend to be excluded or credit constrained. The quality of financial inclusion is impaired by a low level of financial literacy, which is also concentrated among specific population subgroups...

 

ADB

Trying to Follow the Money: Possibilities and Limits of Investor Transparency in Southeast Asia's Rush For "Available" Land, Published 2015. This study uses publicly available financial and spatial data to examine the geography of land-intensive investment in Southeast Asia, and to identify the limits imposed by problems with data availability. It focuses on three regions where land has been widely seen to be available for new investment: Indonesias outer islands; the development triangle where Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam meet; and the Golden Quadrangle region which comprises the borderlands of northeastern Myanmar, northwestern Laos, southern and western Yunnan, and northern Thailand...

 

CIFOR

Reworking the Land: A Review of Literature on the Role of Migration and Remittances in the Rural Livelihoods of Southeast Asia, Published 2015. This paper reviews the literature on migration within and from rural areas of Southeast Asia to examine the effects of redistribution of labor and remittances on livelihoods and land-use practices, as well as contexts in which migration drives, yet is also driven by, social and environmental change. Gaps in the literature and areas of contention and debate are highlighted, informing an agenda for further research...

 

CIFOR

Deforestation-Free Commitments: The Challenge of Implementation - An Application to Indonesia, Published 2015. The deforestation-free movement (or zero-deforestation) has emerged recently in a context of lower state control, globalization and pressure on corporations by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) through consumer awareness campaigns, acknowledging the essential role of agricultural commodities in deforestation. It takes the form of commitments by corporations to ensure that the products they either produce, process, trade or retail are not linked to forest conversion. This movement has particular relevance for Indonesia...

 

CIFOR

Land-Based Investment and Green Development in Indonesia: Lessons from Berau District, East Kalimantan, Published 2015. Growing global concern about the environmental costs of economic development resulting from natural resource extraction has sparked interest in a new economic paradigm known as green development. Indonesia is currently experimenting with the green development paradigm and trying to define its meaning and better understand its potential applications. So far, this process has meant a refinement and realignment of existing policy measures that seek to reduce deforestation and GHG emissions. These regulations often face contradictory economic development strategies...

 

CIFOR

APEC Economic Trends Analysis, May 2015. The PSU’s APEC Economic Trends Analysis provides an overview on emerging trends underlying the region’s economic prospects by providing in-depth analysis on recent macroeconomic and financial developments in the APEC region. The key messages from this issue are:

  • APEC economies proved resilient in 2014 amid challenging external conditions.

  • Near-term outlook points to higher GDP growth for the APEC region, even as the varying impact of falling oil prices on oil importers and oil exporters is expected to result in diverging growth paths for APEC economies.

  • Sound macroeconomic fundamentals afford APEC economies the opportunity to address policy challenges that could boost medium-term growth prospects.

 

APEC

Key Trends and Developments Relating to Trade and Investment Measures and their Impact on the APEC Region, May 2015. This report was presented at the Ministers Responsible for Trade Meeting in Boracay, Philippines in May 2015. The theme section of the report briefly assessed the correlations between APEC members’ FTAs and exports. The preliminary results indicate that despite FTAs being considered as second-best option, FTAs have significant effect on trade. The effect of FTAs, however, depends on the size, and importantly, on the quality of the trade agreement. As for APEC’s trade and investment, the report reveals that export growth among APEC economies in 2014 was relatively robust, and FDI inflows into APEC continued to perform strongly with the APEC region remaining as the top destination for FDI.

 

APEC

Enhancing Cross-Border Higher Education Institution Mobility in the APEC Region, May 2015. This report presents findings of a study of the policy context around higher education institution (HEI) mobility in eight APEC economies – China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, the Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam.

 

APEC

APEC Workshop on Environmental Services in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainability, May 2015. This report looks at how the discussion over key issues, challenges and opportunities posed for environmental services, in addition to the sharing of current and best practices in environmental services and environmental services industries facilitated the development and liberalisation of environmental services in APEC member economies in the promotion of environmentally-responsible economic growth.

 

APEC

Guide to Performance Metrics and BIM to support Green Building Objectives, May 2015. This Guide expands and extends the scope of the Start-up Guide with special emphasis on the value of BIM to improve Green Building outcomes, and support the standardization and measuring of Green Building accomplishments. It provides further guidance for selection and development of policies, programs, standards, technologies, and tracking mechanisms specific to support Green Building initiatives.

 

APEC

Is China Driving PM Modi's "Good Neighborly" Foreign Policy? June 2015. Professor & Chair of the Centre for International Politics, Organisation and Disarmament at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, explains that "China seems to have been Modi's other major preoccupation, since even before he took office."

 

EWC

Japan Needs a New Mechanism to Bridge the Public and Private Sectors, June 2015. Visiting Researcher at the Institute for Comparative Research in Human and Social Sciences, Tsukuba University, Japan, explains that "Japan needs a new mediating organization that can represent the fresh voices of emerging business sectors and convey them to policymakers, thereby bridging the public sector and core elements of today's industrial sector."

 

EWC

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #08: Strategic Possibilities and Limitations for Abe's Japan in Southeast Asia.  Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s desire for Japan to play a more proactive role in strategic affairs stems largely from not just his concern about the nature of China’s rise but the challenge to the post-war liberal regional order that the latter’s rise and behaviour presents. Any disruption to that order is perceived to be extremely detrimental to Japan’s core national interest. The concern with reinforcing and strengthening the existing regional order is causing Japan to take far greater strategic interest in Southeast Asia – and also reflects lessons learnt from Abe’s first time in office (2006–07)...

 

ISEAS

Rethinking North Korea's Denuclearization: Approaches and Strategies, June 2015. The North Korean nuclear issue has become increasingly intractable. The Six Party Talks have stalled since December 2008, while North Korea’s nuclear program has continued apace. On the one hand, the international community—led by the United States and South Korea—demands meaningful action on the part of North Korea to undertake denuclearization measures before Six Party Talks can resume. On the other hand, North Korea points to the need for security assurances and the cessation of the U.S. “hostile policy,” which it claims is the main reason for its nuclear program. This Gordian Knot on the Korean Peninsula continues to vex policy makers and analysts alike. In a situation of deadlock...

 

ISDP

International Journal of Korean Studies, Volume XIX, Number 2, 2014  

IJKS

The Response of Macro Variables of Emerging and Developed Oil Importers to Oil Price Movements, June 2015. This paper assesses the impact of crude oil price movements on two macro variables—the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate and consumer price index inflation rate—in the developed economies of the United States and Japan, and an emerging economy, the People’s Republic of China (PRC). These countries were chosen for this research because they are the world’s three largest oil consumers. The main objective of this study is to see whether these economies are still reactive to oil price movements...

 

ADB

Learning from History: Some Strategic Lessons from the 'Forward Defence' Era, May 2015. Australia is currently engaged in a major reassessment of its strategic policy. Those in and around the policymaking process are trying to define the nation’s core values and interests, to identify the most likely threats, and to frame a strategy that will best protect and promote our national security. This is happening at a time when many defence budgets are severely constrained...

 

ASPI

Reviews and Contestability: New Directions for Defence, May 2015. The First Principles Review of Defence is arguably the most significant review of the defence establishment since the 1973 re-organisation led by Sir Arthur Tange. This Strategic Insights brings together a series of contributions to ASPI’s blog The Strategist written by ten experts with long experience and broad knowledge of Australia’s defence bureaucracy. They bring a wealth of different perspectives and point to significant challenges ahead for Defence if the reforms proposed by the First Principles Review are to succeed.

 

ASPI

Reassessing Malcolm Fraser, May 2015. Malcolm Fraser, Australia’s 22nd Prime Minister, died on 20 March 2015 aged 84. This Strategic Insights, drawn from posts on ASPI’s blog The Strategist, examines Fraser’s foreign policy record as well as his approach to defence policy making and his evolving attitude to the US alliance. Fraser reorganised Australia’s defence establishment and the 1976 defence white paper foreshadowed the move towards the defence of Australia strategy adopted by the Labor government in the 1980’s. Fraser’s strong commitment to human rights and his support for the Commonwealth as a useful multilateral forum were enduring features of his prime ministership.

 

ASPI

North Korea and the Sony Hack: Exporting Instability Through Cyberspace, May 2015. The North Korean cyber attack against Sony Pictures Entertainment in connection with the planned release of The Interview raised important questions about the feasibility of deterrence in cyberspace, the protection of First Amendment values, and the responsibility of the US government to safeguard private networks. It also resulted in the unprecedented attribution of responsibility for a cyber attack to a nation state by a US president, despite public controversy over the evidence. North Korea has long engaged in provocative behavior on the Korean peninsula, recently including cyber attacks, but the probability of general war with South Korea remains quite low...

 

EWC

How to Deepen Asia-Latin America Economic Relations, May 2015. Ganeshan Wignaraja, Advisor in the Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department at the Asian Development Bank, explains that "Trade between [Asia and Latin America] has grown significantly, reaching a historic high of over half a trillion dollars in 2013,... projected to increase to $650 billion by 2020. Increased trade has gone hand in hand with a flurry of diplomatic activity."

 

EWC

The Third Way: Japan's Policy on Nuclear Energy, May 2015. Shinsuke Tomotsugu, Associate Professor at the Institute for Peace Science at Hiroshima University, explains that "Japan's decision to restart its nuclear power plants is rational, assuming these reactors meet strict safety standards."

 

EWC

Loan-to-Value Policy as a Macroprudential Tool: The Case of Residential Mortgage Loans in Asia, May 2015. Credit creation in the housing market has been a key source of systemic financial risk, and therefore is at the center of the debate on macroprudential policies. The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is a widely used macroprudential tool aimed at moderating mortgage loan creation, and its effectiveness needs to be estimated empirically. This paper is unique in that it analyzes the effect of LTV on mortgage lending, the direct channel of influence, using a large sample of banks in 10 Asian economies...

 

ADB

From the Chiang Mai Initiative to an Asian Monetary Fund, May 2015. Following the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis, financial authorities in ASEAN+3 embarked on several new initiatives for East Asia's financial cooperation, including: (i) regional economic surveillance led by the Economic Review and Policy Dialogue (ERPD); (ii) a regional liquidity support facility, called the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI); and (iii) local-currency bond market development. The global financial crisis of 2007–2009 demonstrated the need to further strengthen East Asian financial cooperation. This paper summarizes and evaluates the progress of regional financial cooperation, particularly the ERPD, the CMI and its subsequent multilateralization (CMIM), and the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO)...

 

ADB

The March 2015 Bombings of Yunnan and the Decline in Sino-Myanmar Relations, April 2015. Myanmar’s accidental bombings of China’s Yunnan province on 8 and 13 March 2015 are symptomatic of a recent decline in Sino-Myanmar relations. This article will first examine the recent unrest in Myanmar’s Kokang region that led to the bombings of Yunnan. The relationship between China and the Communist Party of Burma will be shown to connect the unrest in Kokang with the Myanmar government’s long-term suspicions of China...

 

APJ

Repatriation But Not "Return": A Japanese Brazilian Dekasegi Goes Back to Brazil, April 2015. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Japan dispatched well over one million citizens beyond its archipelago in an effort to relieve perceived problems of scarce resources, overpopulation, and social unrest. The majority of emigrants who relocated to Japan’s Asian empire were repatriated after 1945. However, approximately half a million remained more or less permanently in the Americas, giving rise to Japan’s most significant contemporary diaspora...

 

APJ

Womenomics for Japan: Is the Abe Policy for Gendered Employment Viable in an Era of Precarity? March 2015. Womenomics is a theory that advocates the empowerment of women, arguing that enabling women to have access to equal participation in an economy and society will result in economic benefits and social progress. The need for Japan to implement womenomics was first advocated by Kathy Matsui in 1999, and since 2013 Prime Minister Abe’s government has pledged to promote womenomics as policy...

 

APJ

"All Japan" versus "All Okinawa" - Abe Shinzo's Military-Firstism, March 2015. A grand, and massively unequal, struggle over the future of Japan is underway. At sea, a miniscule flotilla of canoes and kayaks confronts a solid wall of National Coastguard ships and on land a few hundred protesters face off 24 hours a day against riot police outside Camp Schwab Marine Corps base, trying in vain to halt the delivery of materials for the construction of a new Marine Corps base on Oura Bay...

 

APJ

The Greening of China's Black Electric Power System? Insights from 2014 Data, March 2015. While China’s energy system is still largely a “black” system depending on fossil fuel inputs, the electric power system is greening at the margins. We demonstrate, using 2014 data on additions to China’s electric power system, that the system is greening– with powerful implications for the future of the country’s energy profile...

 

APJ

Africa and China's 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, March 2015. This paper considers Africa’s place in China’s 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. The Maritime Silk Road is a major component of the “Belt and Road” development framework announced by Chinese President Xi Jinping in late 2013. While the People’s Republic of China has been actively engaged in Africa since 1960, the Maritime Silk Road promises an intensification of Chinese investment on the continent, especially in infrastructural projects including the construction of railways, airports and deepwater ports...

 

APJ

In the Face of American Amnesia, The Grim Truths of No Gun Ri Find a Home, March 2015. On the 70th anniversary of the division of the Korean peninsula, the Korea Policy Institute, in collaboration with The Asia-Pacific Journal, is pleased to publish a special series, “The 70th Anniversary of the U.S. Division of the Korean Peninsula: A People’s History.” Multi-sited in geographic range, this series calls attention to the far-reaching repercussions and ongoing legacies of the fateful 1945 American decision, in the immediate wake of U.S. atomic bombings of Japan and with no Korean consultation, to divide Korea in two. Through scholarly essays, policy articles, interviews, journalistic investigation, survivor testimony, and creative performance, this series explores the human costs and ground-level realities of the division of Korea...

 

APJ

The Post-3/11 Quest for True Kizuna – Shi no Tsubute by Wagō Ryōichi and Kamisama 2011 by Kawakami Hiromi, February 2015. The reconstruction efforts following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami (3/11) have sparked a rediscovery of the concept of kizuna (literally, “bonds between people”). Some Japanese authors, however, are contesting and expanding on this notion as a way of coming to terms with the disaster. Through the analysis of two literary works, I argue that 3/11 literature provides a model for Japan’s emotional and physical reconstruction through its resourcefulness and alternative vision of kizuna.

 

APJ

The Internet and Personal Narratives in the Post-Disaster Anti-Nuclear Movement, February 2015. In this essay I explore the way the internet has facilitated people’s participation in anti-nuclear activism in Japan. After contextualising the use of the internet in the anti-nuclear movement which developed after the compound disaster of “3/11”, I present a case study focused on the tweet messages of one twitter user. By undertaking content analysis, tracing tweets over time, and tracing the connections between particular vocabulary items, and an interview, we gain a picture of how one participant in the anti-nuclear movement developed a political consciousness through participating in internet-facilitated activism.

 

APJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #07: Chinese Engagement in Laos: Past, Present, and Uncertain Future.  During the colonial period, Laos welcomed the smallest overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia, communities that almost disappeared after the communist forces seized power in Laos in 1975. Yet, this landlocked country shares a long history with China and even experienced a Golden Age thanks to the thriving caravan trade between Yunnan and mainland Southeast Asia. The Greater Mekong Subregion programme, launched by the Asian Development Bank, has revitalized these historical trade routes, causing thousands of Chinese migrants to pour onto the new roads of Laos, channelled through the North–South Economic Corridor linking Kunming to Bangkok...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #06: Vietnam's Alliance Politics in the South China Sea. Vietnam has long maintained “no alliance” as a core principle in its foreign policy. However, as China becomes increasingly assertive in the South China Sea, there are indications that Vietnam is moving towards “alliance politics”, or efforts to forge close security and defence ties short of formal, treaty-bound alliances with key partners, to deal with the new situation. The need for such a shift in Vietnam’s China strategy became more relevant after the 2014 Haiyang Shiyou 981 oil rig crisis displayed the limitations in Hanoi’s hedging strategy. It deepened Vietnam’s perception of China as a serious threat and highlighted the irreconcilability between its twin goals of maintaining good relations with China and protecting its interests in the South China Sea...

 

ISEAS

Monetary Policy and Foreign Exchange Management: Reforming Central Bank Functions, May 2015. These priority areas entail a three-front effort: dismantle nonmarket arrangements, especially in the finance sector; implement a monetary policy framework and operational procedures, including financial markets development; and enhance central bank policy capacity. The latter includes elevating the policy process, central banking functions, and institutional roles to match the tasks of a modern monetary authority in a market-based economy.

 

ADB

APEC Green Building Code Infrastructure Guide, May 2015 proposes a framework to support code requirements in the marketplace to achieve desired outcomes. While specific goals and drivers for green buildings will vary among economies, the basic concepts of infrastructure are “driver-neutral” and, at the same time, heavily economy-specific in practice. The proposed framework is flexible and can be customized to leverage the strengths and accommodate the realities of individual economies.

 

APEC

Strategic Human Resource Management for Successful Foreign Direct Investment in APEC, April 2015. This report aims to identify HRM issues for improving performance in a company’s foreign affiliates and develop a prototype Guide to Strategic HRM for FDI.

 

APEC

Research Outcomes: Summary of Research Projects 2014, April 2015. This publication provides the key findings and/or recommendations from research projects that were undertaken during 2014.

 

APEC

2014 PSU Annual Report, April 2015. The annual report summarises the operations and activities of the APEC Policy Support Unit (PSU) for the calendar year of 2014. It provides an overview of projects and activities undertaken in the year including a list of completed and current projects, and the audited financial statements.

 

APEC

Research and Assessment of Prospects for Development of an Integrated Information Tool to Stimulate Involvement of SMEs of the Asia-Pacific Region into the Global Trade System, Global Production and Supply Chains, March 2015. This project aims to develop an integrated and unified resource of information to promote international cooperation and integration of SMEs based on a combination of analytical and organizational activities and the proposal of action plan for its effective implementation in SMEs in APEC economies.

 

APEC

Australia and the 1951 Refugee Convention, April 2015. In this Analysis, Khalid Koser argues that the implementation of the 1951 Refugee Convention is failing the interests of both states and refugees. Koser argues that Australia is well-placed to lead an international effort for reform...

 

Lowy

Australian Foreign Fighters: Risks and Responses, April 2015. In this Analysis, Andrew Zammit argues that Australians fighting in Iraq and Syria pose a threat to Australia’s security and examines the options for responding to that threat, including through non-coercive means...

 

Lowy

Fiji's Election and Australia: The Terms of Re-Engagement, September 2014. In this Lowy Institute Policy Brief, Melanesia Program Director Jenny Hayward-Jones examines the significance of Fiji’s elections on 17 September for Australian policy towards Fiji. She argues that the election will only be the first step in Fiji’s transition to democracy after eight years of...

 

Lowy

The G20 Needs a Growth Strategy, February 2014. In this Lowy Institute Policy Brief, Director of the G20 Studies Centre Mike Callaghan AM argues that the G20 needs to develop a comprehensive growth strategy to lift global growth and create jobs. Callaghan outlines the steps required to develop such a strategy by the Brisbane G20 Summit.

 

Lowy

Making Strategic Policy: What's Involved, May 2015. With preparations for the Defence White Paper 2015 well underway, both government and the public are probably more interested than usual in the esoteric topic of Australia’s strategic policy. In this paper, the author unpacks some thoughts about that by talking most about how strategic policy is—ideally—made. Making strategic policy means solving a puzzle in three parts: understanding an environment largely not of our own making; determining our own global and regional role; and acknowledging a set of constraints that bound that role...

 

ASPI

No Exit: Next Steps for Promoting South Pacific Peace and Prosperity, April 2015. As Australia focuses on its global interests in a changing and challenging international environment, there’s a danger that we’ll lose sight of important constants of history and geography. We don’t have an either/or choice to focus on near or distant security imperatives. While the Australian Government’s decision to lift defence funding will help with this, cutting aid to help offset that boost may prove counterproductive...

 

ASPI

Sounding the Alarm: Terrorism Threat Communications with the Australian Public, April 2015. On 12 September last year, the national terrorism advisory was raised by Prime Minister Abbott from medium to high on the advice of outgoing ASIO Director-General, David Irvine. Since September 12, 2001, we’d been on a medium level alert. This paper suggests five immediate changes which could help make our terrorism warning system better meet the public’s expectation that the government will provide useful information on terrorist threats and advice about required changes to behaviour...

 

ASPI

Developing Myanmar's Finance Sector to Support Rapid, Inclusive, and Sustainable Economic Growth, April 2015. The finance sector is the lifeblood of any economy and its smooth and efficient functioning is central to strong economic growth and development. The Government of Myanmar has made swift progress in reforming the policy and institutional environment for the finance sector since the launch of broad economic reforms...

 

ADB

Myanmar Long-term Scenarios for Sustained Macroeconomic Growth, April 2015. Simulation results from the use of a dynamic economic forecasting model to evaluate Myanmar’s growth drivers suggest a broad horizon of opportunity for promoting rapid and inclusive economic growth...

 

ADB

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #05: Islamization Policy and Islamic Bureaucracy in Malaysia. The history of Islamization in post-independence Malaysia covers dakwah (propagation of Islam) processes in projecting the doctrine of Sunni Islam. The implementation of Islamization policy, since independence in 1957 and aggressively pursued since the 1980s, has promoted the institutionalization of Sunni Islam in Malaysia. It has led to the expansion of the Islamic bureaucracy including the judiciary and security sectors...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #04: Explaining China's 2+7 Initiative Towards ASEAN. China’s 2+7 Initiative towards ASEAN aims to create an economic, security and political partnership that will be deeper than ASEAN’s partnerships with other external powers. This partnership would be inherently unequal and China’s effort to secure this relationship should be seen in the context of China’s agenda to achieve great power status. China seeks Southeast Asian followers within a larger China-centred Eurasian community...

 

ISEAS

Trends in Southeast Asia 2015 #03 - China's New Maritime Silk Road: Implications and Opportunities for Southeast Asia. In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping unveiled plans for two massive trade and infrastructure networks connecting East Asia with Europe: the New Silk Road and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (“one belt one road”). The plans aim to reinvigorate the ancient Silk Roads with a modern network of high-speed rail, motorways, pipelines and ports stretching across the region...

 

ISEAS

Hard Pegs versus Intermediate Currency Arrangements in the Pacific, April 2015. The 14 Pacific developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) have opted for very different exchange rate regimes with varying degrees of flexibility. Whereas several microstates have adopted an external currency as their legal tender, others have decided to use a basket currency and yet others have chosen a managed float. The choice of exchange rate regime can have far reaching economic consequences...

 

ADB

Health and Home Ownership: Findings for the Case of Japan, April 2015. The research objective of this paper is to test whether health conditions and health behavior are related to home ownership. This question has not yet been examined quantitatively in the existing literature. Our estimation results show that homeowners consistently report better health and less physical problems. The significance of home ownership remains even after controlling for financial assets and housing conditions...

 

ADB

Housing Policies for Asia: A Theoretical Analysis by Use of a Demand and Supply Model, April 2015. The main objective of this paper is to give an overview of the most commonly used housing policies and to illustrate their economic impact. To facilitate the analysis, we first introduce a simple two-period housing demand model for owner-occupied houses and rental houses. We then add a standard stock-flow housing supply model...

 

ADB

Slow Pace of Reforms Inhibits US-India Agricultural Trade, April 2015. Surupa Gupta, Associate Professor at the University of Mary Washington, explains that "In the face of multiple challenges such as low productivity, low income, and low growth in the farm sector at the beginning of the 2000s, the [Indian] central government advocated that Indian agriculture was in dire need of liberal reforms."

 

EWC

An Australian Perspective on the "Utility of Unity" in ASEAN, April 2015. John Blaxland, Senior Fellow at Australian National University's Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, explains that "United States policy makers should consider the significance and utility of Australia's military commitment in the Middle East compared to its ability to help foster regional security and stability in Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific: it cannot readily do both well."

 

EWC

South Korea's Policy Choices in the TPP Era, April 2015. June Park, Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington, explains that "without clear goals, South Korea will face difficulties in achieving an optimal outcome [from the TPP], and may be 'outcompeted' by countries that have set their priorities to maximize competitive advantage."

 

EWC

Searching for the "Strategic" in the UK-Japan "New Type of Alliance", March 2015 . Philip Shetler-Jones, Brussels-based security consultant, explains that "important policy and strategic developments unfolding in 2015 will test the rhetoric and indicate whether the UK and Japan's relationship has the potential to produce something like a 'new type of alliance'."

 

EWC

Wrongful Convictions and the Culture of Denial in Japanese Criminal Justice, February 2015. The release of Hakamada Iwao from death row in March 2014 after 48 years of incarceration provides an opportunity to reflect on wrongful convictions in Japanese criminal justice. My approach is comparative because this problem cannot be understood without asking how Japan compares with other countries: to know only one country is to know no country well...

 

APJ

Will Wrongful Convictions Be a Catalyst for Change in Japanese Criminal Justice? February 2015. The Asia Pacific Journal presents a link to an extraordinary 12-minute video by Matthew Carney of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation discussing the death penalty and the problem of wrongful convictions in Japanese criminal justice. This video explains what went wrong in three cases involving men who were victimized in the worst kind of way by Japan’s criminal justice system, and it raises the possibility that these cases could stimulate reform in Japan’s system of capital punishment and in the criminal justice system more generally...

 

APJ

Australia's "Asian Century": Time, Space and Public Culture, February 2015. In late September 2013, Australian news media reported on two very different events related to journeys across the ocean straits that separate Australia from Indonesia. On the evening of September 26th, an Indonesian fishing boat carrying eighty refugees from northern Lebanon who intended to seek asylum in Australia foundered off a West Java beach. The boat sank the following day. Thirty-one people who had been onboard drowned. Some of those who survived claimed that when the boat’s engine failed, passengers had contacted Australian authorities, but according to official reports, the Border Protection Command aircraft that was dispatched could not locate the vessel...

 

APJ

Komatsu, Smart Construction, Creative Destruction, and Japan's Robot Revolution, February 2015. Japanese multinational construction giant Komatsu is a front-runner, in Japan as well as globally, in the development and deployment of renewable energy, efficiency, automation and robotics. It is also a repeat winner of the coveted Deming Prize and numerous other awards for excellence, innovation and environmental protection...

 

APJ

Sink the Asahi! The 'Comfort Women' Controversy and the Neo-nationalist Attack, February 2015. Before last year it is doubtful that many Japanese knew the location of Glendale, California – an L.A. suburb with a population of 200,000 known for its large Asian population and the Big Boy fast-food chain. That’s changed, thanks to an unimposing bronze statue of a young woman installed last year in a local park that has become a microcosm of the toxic history war between Japan and South Korea...

 

APJ

'Only a disciplined people can build a nation': North Korean Mass Games and Third Worldism in Guyana, 1980-1992, January 2015. As the 1970s drew to a close, Forbes Burnham (1923-85), Guyana’s controversial leader of 21 years, received Pyongyang’s assistance in importing the North Korean tradition of Mass Games, establishing them as a major facet of the nation’s cultural and political life during the 1980-92 period. The current study documents this episode in Guyanese history and seeks to explain why the Burnham regime prioritized such an experiment in a time of austerity and crisis, its ideological foundations, and how Guyanese interpreted and responded to Mass Games...

 

APJ

Storm Ahead: Okinawa's Outlook for 2015, January 2015. If 2014 was a year of consolidation on the two opposing sides of the long-running Okinawan saga over US military base hosting plans, 2015 promises to be one of intense, perhaps decisive struggle. By 2014, civic groups had established a strong institutional power base in the city administration in Nago and the prefectural one in Naha, while resistance continues also at Takae in the Yambaru forest...

 

APJ

Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience as Structural Reform in Abenomics, January 2015. In the waning days of 2014, by far the hottest year humans have ever measured, Bloomberg News warned that the foreign investors who control roughly 70% of volume traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange “have had just about enough of Abenomics.” Decrying that there is no Japanese Facebook or Google, and that the “Japanese have lost their place as global leaders,” punters slashed their 2014 investment in Japanese stocks a stunning 94% compared to the previous year...

 

APJ

The Erosion of Democracy in South Korea: The Dissolution of the Unified Progressive Party and the Incarceration of Lee Seok-ki, December 2014. On December 19, 2014, South Korea’s Constitutional Court delivered an unprecedented ruling to dissolve the opposition Unified Progressive Party and disqualify all five of its representatives from the National Assembly. The ruling was in response to a petition filed by the Park Geun-hye government in November 2013 to dissolve the party based on allegations that it was under orders from North Korea to subvert the South Korean state through violent revolution...

 

APJ

Stranger than Fiction: The Interview and U.S. Regime-Change Policy Toward North Korea, December 2014. Representations of North Korea as a buffoon, a menace, or both on the American big screen are at least as old and arguably as tired as the George W. Bush-era phrase, “the axis of evil.” Along with the figure of the Muslim “terrorist,” hackneyed Hollywood constructions of the “ronery” or diabolical Dr. Evil-like North Korean leader bent on world domination, the sinister race-bending North Korean spy, the robotic North Korean commando, and other post-Cold War Red/Yellow Peril bogeymen have functioned as go-to enemies for the commercial film industry’s geopolitical and racist fantasies....

 

APJ

China's Global Dam Builder at a Crossroads, December 2014. Since the turn of the century, Sinohydro has become the world’s dominant dam builder. The company is engaged in an ongoing dialogue with International Rivers, having prepared a strong environmental policy framework in 2011. Yet Sinohydro is now considering building a series of highly destructive dam projects. The world’s biggest hydropower contractor is at a crossroads...

 

APJ

US Strategic Negligence, North Korea and the Sony Slideshow, December 2014. The imbroglio over the new Sony film The Interview is a sideshow that reveals that the Obama Administration, like the Bush Administration before it, has lost the plot with regard to North Korea. The real game is to stop, reverse and end North Korea’s nuclear weapons breakout. Its handling of The Interview has managed to distract the US government from this strategic imperative, increase the risk of war, including nuclear war, and made it harder than ever to advance American vital security interests in relation to North Korea’s nuclear threat...

 

APJ

'Distancing Acts': Private Mercenaries and the War on Terror in American Foreign Policy, December 2014. His bulging left bicep featuring a tattoo of a Panther and his right one of the Grim Reaper, Wolf Weiss was a heavy metal guitarist from Los Angeles with fifteen years’ military experience who embodied the new type of warrior for the 21st century. Styled “the Heavy Metal Mercenary” by Rolling Stone Magazine, Weiss was hired by a private contractor...

 

APJ

Japan's 'National Resilience Plan': Its Promise and Perils in the Wake of the Election, December 2014. This article highlights Japan’s National Resilience (“Kokudo Kyoujinka”) strategy, a very important, multi-trillion-yen initiative that was (incredibly) ignored during the campaign preceding the December 14 election and continues to be. Like most countries’ efforts to bolster resilience against accelerating climate change and other patent threats, the content of Japan’s plan is a work in progress. But the scale and scope of Japan’s strategy is unparalleled, as it is slated to grow from YEN 3.6 trillion in FY 2014 to YEN 4.54 trillion in FY 2015...

 

APJ

China's Triangle Diplomacy, December 2014. Back in the days of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, the “strategic triangle” with the Soviet Union and China was the great game. The idea was to play off the two communist powers against one another, relying on their ideological warfare under Mao, deep cultural differences, and open conflict in border regions to sustain their mutual suspicions and fears of attack. Now the shoe is on the other foot, so to speak: China seems to be in charge of the game, using US-Russia enmity and its own on-again, off-again competition with the US to keep both those countries cooperative with and in need of Beijing...

 

APJ

Australia in America's Third Iraq War, December 2014. Little more than two months after the start of bombing operations, Australia’s new war in Iraq is following the path of its predecessor, a path marked by Australian subordination to American interests, irrelevance to Australian national interests, casual disregard for Iraqi sovereignty and law, increasingly severe restriction of information provided to the Australian public, and an inclination to escalation...

 

APJ

Japan's Resilient, Decarbonizing and Democratic Smart Communities, December 2014. On December 1, 2014 the rapidly expanding domain of renewable energy burst through a stubborn bottleneck of vested interests and outmoded ideas. Germany’s biggest utility, E. ON, announced it would abandon fossil fuel and nuclear power to create “a new business model based on renewables, intelligent grid systems, energy management and other services...

 

APJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asian Development Outlook 2015: Financing Asia's Future Growth (Highlights, Full Report). The drop in international oil prices is taking pressure off of consumer prices. Inflation will slow from 3.1% in 2014 to 2.6% in 2015. As low oil prices are supporting growth in developing Asia, a sudden sharp reversal could undermine the outlook and require policy response. Similarly, while capital inflows to the region have been beneficial for growth, policy makers must carefully manage credit expansion to ensure that it does not lead to excessive leverage and asset price bubbles. Developing Asia needs a deep, robust financial sector to sustain growth. Policy makers will be challenged to ensure that financial sector development is inclusive, providing broad access to households and firms. Financial stability must also be maintained to enhance growth and equity.

 

ADB

Asia Bond Monitor, March 2015 reviews recent developments in East Asian local currency bond markets along with the outlook, risks, and policy options. This issue includes a special section on Oil and Gas Companies’ Bonds in Asia. Local currency (LCY) bond markets in emerging East Asia started the year well despite uncertainties over the Greek debt crisis and the end of quantitative easing in the United States (US). Bond yields in most emerging East Asian economies were pushed down by a reduction in inflationary expectations amid a fall in oil prices...

 

ADB

Asian Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2015 (Full Report):
Special Issue on the People's Republic of China
  ADB

Regional Economic Integration and Multilateralism: The Case of the ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand FTA and the Malaysia-New Zealand FTA, April 2015. Regional economic integration is back in vogue following the "stumble" in the Doha Round in July 2008. Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are driving this trend in Asia and the Pacific as well as in Central and South America, and the sheer volume of PTAs is striking. In the 1990s there were barely five PTAs in force, but now there are more than 200 either under negotiation or in force. In this regard, Asia and the Pacific has developed a rapidly evolving regional economic architecture that spans two major plurilateral agreements, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (or ASEAN+6 RCEP), as well as the putative Free Trade Agreement of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP), which received a new lease on life through the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders' meeting in Beijing late last year. ASEAN, as a group or individually, has been particularly busy in this sphere, deliberately using PTAs as a supplement to its own regional integration process...

 

ADB

Japan's Lost Decade: Lessons for Other Economies, April 2015. Japan has suffered from sluggish economic growth and recession since the 1990s, a phenomenon dubbed "Japan's Lost Decade." The People's Republic of China, many countries in the eurozone, and the United States may face similar problems in future and they have been concerned by Japan's long-term recession. This paper will address why Japan's economy has stagnated since the bursting of its economic bubble. Our empirical analysis challenges the beliefs of some western economists, such as Paul Krugman, that the Japanese economy is in a liquidity trap. We argue that Japan's economic stagnation stems from a vertical IS curve rather than a liquidity trap...

 

ADB

Investment Finance and Financial Sector Development, March 2015. Investment in infrastructure for increasing trade and connectivity in South Asia and Southeast Asia has been impacted by a reduction in commercial bank participation in project financing, which has significantly increased the role of multilateral financial institutions and export credit agencies. The financing model needs to change to more sustainable local market and local currency financing by harnessing domestic savings, and this will be crucial if the region is to procure investments of an estimated $3.6 trillion by 2020 for financing of its infrastructure and connectivity projects...

 

ADB

Connecting South Asia and Southeast Asia, Published 2015. This book analyzes how closer regional connectivity and economic integration between South Asia and Southeast Asia can benefit both subregions, with a focus on the role played by infrastructure and public policies in facilitating this process. It examines major developments in South Asia–Southeast Asia trade and investment, economic cooperation, the role of economic corridors, and regional cooperation initiatives. In particular, it identifies significant opportunities for strengthening these integration efforts as a result of the recent opening up of Myanmar in political, economic, and financial terms...

 

ADB

Ecosystem Based Adaptation to Address Climate Change Challenges in the Greater Mekong Subregion, Published 2015. Greater Mekong Subregion countries need to strengthen the resilience of their natural and human systems to safeguard the region’s natural wealth and development gains in the face of climate change challenges. The publication summarizes the current state of Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) knowledge and experience on ecosystem-based approaches. It draws upon work of the GMS Core Environment Program and partner institutions, including findings from the regional workshop “Mainstreaming an Ecosystem-based Approach to Climate Change into Biodiversity Conservation Planning,” which took place 15–16 October 2013 in Ha Noi, Viet Nam...

 

ADB

Unlocking Indonesia's Geothermal Potential, Published 2015. This report produced jointly by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank is based on a series of technical assistance activities conducted during 2013-2014. The study documents key issues that have constrained the development of Indonesia's geothermal power development sector, including tariffs, tendering processes, financial considerations, permitting, and inter-agency coordination. The report then makes a set of comprehensive recommendations to unlock the potential of the sector, including a new tariff regime, improvements to the tendering process, re-negotiation of power purchase agreements, and innovative modes of financing and project de-risking...

 

ADB

NARBO: A Decade of Achievements (2004-2014) : Promoting Integrated Water Resources Management and Improving Water Governance, Published 2015. In order to address Asia's water security issues, an integrated and comprehensive approach for better water resources management is essential. The Network of Asian River Basin Organizations (NARBO) was launched in 2004 to promote integrated water resources management (IWRM) and improve water governance in the region...

 

ADB

The PLA's Evolving Global Role and New Security Initiatives, March 2015. China’s increased openness, accelerating economic development, and the emergence of new security challenges and relationships in the post-Cold War world have cast the Chinese military and its role in a new light. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has adapted accordingly, and has become an important actor in international security affairs, shedding its prior isolation. This paper outlines the various international and regional security initiatives the PLA takes part in today, and links these to an evolution of the Chinese national security concept.

 

ISDP

SME Internationalization and Measurement, March 2015. This policy brief examines different forms of SME internationalization, and discusses methods to measure the degree of internationalization of SMEs. It also explores feasible ways for APEC to measure SME internationalization in the region

 

APEC

Value Chain Resilience in the Asia Pacific: A Synthesis Report, March 2015. The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Policy Support Unit (APEC PSU), in consultation with the Committee of Trade and Investment (CTI), conducted four studies to deepen understanding and increase awareness of the emerging systemic risks and value chain resilience (VCR) by evaluating three elements of resilience—value chain risks, strength and connectedness—quantitatively and estimating their impact on the APEC region’s trade and investment. This synthesis report attempts to summarize the main findings of those studies as well as the policy implications and the way forward.

 

APEC

Education Guideline 5: Inspiring the Next Generation of Standards Professionals - Towards Job Profiling in Today's Global World, March 2015. This project aims to explore the skill-set required by standards professionals to meet the needs of businesses, government agencies, education institutes, and standards-related organization in the APEC region.

 

APEC

Hong Kong: High Frequency Macroeconomic Forecasts Current Quarter Model: 2015Q2, April 2015. Clouded by the risk of interest rate hike and the US dollar appreciation, we remain optimistic in the short term. In the short run, we expect Hong Kong to have another modest growth year in 2015, supported by local demand throughout 2015 and external demand in the latter part of 2015. Hong Kong’s real GDP is expected to grow by 2.8% in 2015 for the year as a whole, likely between 2.5% and 3.1%, slightly higher than the 2.3% growth in 2014.

 

HKU

The Strategic Dimension of 'Option J': Australia's Submarine Choice and Its Security Relations with Japan, March 2015. There’s a possibility that Australia’s future submarine (FSM) will be based on a Japanese design. The government has explicitly kept that option open, along with the possibility of buying the boats from Germany or France. Wherever the FSM is designed, built, or both, the supplier’s political reliability and technological suitability are vital, as is establishing trust in the ability of both sides to work together effectively and efficiently on such a complex capability. This paper examines what a possible Australian–Japanese submarine deal would mean for the wider relationship between the two countries, as well as the geostrategic implications.

 

ASPI

Thailand's Economic Integration with Neighboring Countries and Possible Connectivity with South Asia, April 2015. This paper reviews the current stages of Thailand's intra-regional trade, physical connectivity, trade facilitation, energy cooperation, and infrastructure funding as there are projects planned in these areas that could impact Thailand and its links to Southeast Asia and beyond to South Asia. However, Thailand's political instability impedes the progress and implementation of such projects. The paper also examines the current financing mechanism of Thailand's infrastructure projects that relies heavily on public spending...

 

ADB

The Middle-Income Transition around the Globe: Characteristics of Graduation and Slowdown, March 2015. The paper investigates the situation of middle-income economies around the world. Since 1965, only 18 economies with a population of more than 3 million and not dependent on oil exports have made the transition to being high income. Many more have not been able to move beyond the middle-income stage...

 

ADB

Journal of Global Buddhism, Volume 16, 2015  

JGB

Australia and Climate Change Negotiations: At the Table, or on the Menu? March 2015. In this Analysis, Howard Bamsey and Kath Rowley argue that any failure to pay proper, high-level attention to the current international climate change negotiations raises several risks to the national interest. Strong, constructive engagement in those negotiations by Australia would serve climate...

 

Lowy

Full Spectrum Defence: Re-Thinking the Fundamentals of Australian Defence Strategy, March 2015. In this Analysis, Alan Dupont argues that successive Australian governments have failed to define an effective national defence strategy. Australia needs a defence strategy that counters threats across multiple domains, is based on more diverse regional defence relationships, and is underpinned by...

 

Lowy

MAS Survey of Professional Forecasters, March 2015. The MAS Survey of Professional Forecasters provides a summary of forecasts of Singapore's key economic indicators by economists and analysts. The survey is conducted quarterly following the release of economic data for the previous quarter by the Ministry of Trade and Industry.

 

MAS

Adjustments of Capital Account Restrictions and Exchange Rate Regimes in East Asia, March 2015. This paper discusses adjustments of capital account restrictions and exchange rate regimes in East Asia. Monetary authorities have two options for these adjustments: gradual adjustments or rapid adjustments. We analyze the costs and benefits for both adjustment options in each area, i.e., capital account restrictions and exchange rate regime. The paper provides prominent country cases for each adjustment option to emphasize the benefits for policymakers. We then propose four transition policy options for East Asian countries aiming to relax capital account restrictions and increase flexibility in exchange rates from fixed regimes with capital account controls.

 

ADB

Myanmar: Cross-cutting Governance Challenges, March 2015. Specifically, the paper discusses outstanding problem areas related to economic governance, particularly in the legal system, the business regulatory framework, and in bureaucratic capacity as well as the potential use of external policy anchors, particularly in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) process, to strengthen Myanmar’s ongoing reform effort...

 

ADB

An Emerging 3rd Pillar in Asian Architecture? AIIB and Other China-led Initiatives, March 2015. Cheng-Chwee Kuik, Associate Professor, Strategic Studies and International Relations at the National University of Malaysia, explains that “the emerging institutional pole is China-centered [and] anchored on remuneration-calculated and identity-based ‘common security’.”

 

EWC

A Little Help from Our Friends: Security Partnerships and the Rebalance, March 2015. Marvin Ott, senior scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center, and Julia Allen, strategic studies major at Johns Hopkins University, explain that "the Rebalance will be unsustainable without heavy reliance on tangible expressions of regional support [from critical partners] Australia, the Philippines, and Singapore."

 

EWC

Anchors and Antidotes: The Japan-Australia Strategic Partnership, March 2015. Malcolm Cook, senior fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, and Thomas Wilkins, senior lecturer at the University of Sydney, explain that "The rapid development of the Japan-Australia security partnership over the last decade and into the future is anchored in their respective alliance relationships with the United States and support for US regional leadership."

 

EWC

Global Strategic Patenting and Innovation--Policy and Research Implications, February 2015. As an exclusionary property right, patents invite their use as a strategic weapon to shape markets and to reap monopoly rents through patent monetization. The increasing variety and global reach of strategic patenting strategies pose new and under-researched challenges for the international distribution of innovation gains. This think piece explores the proliferation of strategic patenting strategies, and highlights the growing complexity and uncertainty of the international patent system that result from the increasing use of patents as market deterrents and as a new asset class...

 

EWC

Reinventing Asian Populism: Jokowi's Rise, Democracy, and Political Contestation in Indonesia, Published 2015. Around the globe, populists have used the decline of established political parties and widespread societal fears of globalization to launch increasingly successful electoral campaigns. Indonesia is no exception. In the 2014 presidential elections, two populists even competed against each other—albeit with vastly different concepts of populism. Prabowo Subianto, the wealthy former son-in-law of ex-autocrat Suharto, offered a classic populist paradigm based on anti-foreign rhetoric, condemnation of the status quo, appeal to the poor, and neo-authoritarian reform plans. By contrast, his opponent, the down-to-earth former carpenter and Jakarta governor...

 

EWC

Making Timber Plantations an Attractive Business for Smallholders, March 2015. The businesses of most smallholder timber growers are not strictly market-oriented. Consequently, opportunities to make better income from timber selling are often lost. Timber plantations generate important additional income for farmers. In Gunungkidul district, Indonesia, where smallholder teak plantations are grown, timber selling contributes about 15% of farmers total income...

 

CIFOR

Do Tree Plantations Support Forest Conservation? January 2015. Tree plantations potentially support natural forest conservation. The main hypothesis for this effect is that tree plantations substitute natural forests for production, especially when plantations achieve high productivity. An exhaustive review of the published literature shows a diversity of analytical approaches with theoretical modeling, econometrics or descriptive statistics as main categories...

 

CIFOR

Port Congestion and Underutilization in the Greater Capital Region: Unpacking the Issues, March 2015. This Policy Note presents the key findings of a study that investigated the causes behind the congestion in the Port of Manila and the underutilization of Batangas and Subic Ports. Using survey and focus group discussion, the study looked into the factors that affect the decision of shippers, freight forwarders, logistics services providers, and truckers on their choice of port and their satisfaction ratings of their chosen port. The Note ends with some short-, medium-, and long-term measures to address the congestion and underutilization issues.

 

PIDS

K to 12 Reform: Implications of Adding Grades 11 and 12 on the Higher Education Subsector, March 2015. This Policy Note does an initial assessment of the K to 12 program`s effects on the supply of classrooms and teachers vis-a-vis the projected demand. It points to some windows of opportunities that may be considered as possible solutions, such as allowing higher education institutions to absorb the additional demand for places in SHSs.

 

PIDS

Promoting Women`s Participation in the APEC Economies: Some Recommendations, February 2015. At the level of the national economy, efforts must now be taken to ensure that women`s economic opportunities are not eroded and that women are prepared to cope with the challenges of the new order. Women enterprises should be strengthened to prepare them to compete in the global marketplace amid environmental and business challenges. At the regional level, APEC has implemented a number of women-related directives and initiatives. One of the recommendations is more involvement of women in the business sector...

 

PIDS

Choke Points and Opportunities in the Supply Chain of ASEAN Agricultural Products: A Philippine Country Study, Published 2014. This study identifies and examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the region of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: crude coconut oil (which belongs to the HS15 group), and fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (which belong to the HS03 group)...

 

PIDS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

  

 
 

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